Real numbers comprise both rational and irrational numbers within the number system. These numbers allow for comprehensive arithmetic operations and can be accurately depicted on the number line. In contrast, imaginary numbers, constituting the unreal realm, defy representation on the number line and are frequently employed in denoting complex numbers. Real numbers encompass a diverse range, including integers like 21 and 12, decimals like 6.99, fractions such as 7/2, and constants like π. This article delves into the definition, properties, and examples of real numbers, providing thorough explanations for a comprehensive understanding.
Table of Contents
Real Numbers Definition
Real numbers encompass the amalgamation of rational and irrational numbers, collectively represented by the symbol “R.” These numbers, indicated as positive or negative, include a broad spectrum such as natural numbers, decimals, and fractions.
 Rational Numbers:

 Rational numbers are those that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction a/b
, where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0. Examples include integers (e.g., 3, 0, 5), fractions (1/2, 3/4), and decimals that either terminate or repeat (e.g., 0.25, 0.666…).
 Rational numbers are those that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction a/b

 Irrational Numbers:
 Irrational numbers cannot be expressed as fractions of integers. Their decimal representations neither terminate nor repeat. Examples include the square root of nonperfect squares(√2, √5..)
 Integers:
 Integers are whole numbers, including both positive and negative values, as well as zero. Examples are 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.
 Whole Numbers:
 Whole numbers consist of nonnegative integers, including zero. Examples are 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.
 Natural Numbers:
 Natural numbers are the set of positive integers, excluding zero. Examples are 1, 2, 3, and so on.
 Decimal Numbers:
 Decimal numbers are numbers expressed in the decimal system, including both terminating and repeating decimals.
Properties of Real Numbers
Closure under Addition:
The sum of two real numbers is always a real number. For any real numbers a and b, a + b is also a real number.
Closure under Subtraction:
The difference between two real numbers is always a real number. For any real numbers a and b, a – b is also a real number.
Closure under Multiplication:
The product of two real numbers is always a real number. For any real numbers a and b, a×b is also a real number.
Closure under Division:
The quotient of two real numbers is a real number, provided the denominator is not zero. For any real numbers a and b (b=/0), a/b is also a real number.
Associative Property of Addition:
The grouping of real numbers in addition does not affect the result. For any real numbers a, b, and c, (a+b)+c=a+(b+c).
Associative Property of Multiplication:
The grouping of real numbers in multiplication does not affect the result. For any real numbers a, b, and c, (a×b)×c = a×(b×c).
Commutative Property of Addition:
The order of real numbers in addition does not affect the result. For any real numbers a and b, a + b = b + a
Commutative Property of Multiplication:
The order of real numbers in multiplication does not affect the result. For any real numbers a and b, a×b = b×a.
Distributive Property:
Multiplication distributes over addition. For any real numbers a, b, and c, a×(b+c)=(a×b)+(a×c).
Difference Between Real Numbers and Integers
Characteristic  Real Numbers  Integers 

Definition  Include all rational and irrational numbers.  Consist of positive and negative whole numbers and zero. 
Representation on the Number Line  Can be represented on the line. Each point on the line corresponds to a unique real number. The line extends infinitely in both directions.  Can also be represented on the number line. Each point corresponds to a unique integer. 
Inclusiveness  Broad category that includes integers, fractions, decimals, and irrational numbers.  Subset of real numbers. All integers are real numbers, but not all real numbers are integers. 
Notation  Often denoted by \( \mathbb{R} \).  Often denoted by \( \mathbb{Z} \). 
FAQs
 What are real numbers?
 Real numbers include all rational and irrational numbers and can be expressed as decimals, fractions, or integers.
 What is the symbol for real numbers?
 The symbol for real numbers is $R$.
 Can real numbers be negative?
 Yes, real numbers can be both positive and negative. They include all rational and irrational numbers.
 Are fractions real numbers?
 Yes, fractions are real numbers. They are part of the broader category of real numbers.
 Do real numbers include irrational numbers?
 Yes, real numbers include both rational and irrational numbers. Irrational numbers have nonterminating, nonrepeating decimal expansions.